Jak ocenić wartość polityka? Perspektywa mózgu wyborców

Maciej Błaszak


How to Evaluate a Politician? The Voter’s Brain Perspective


The paper is an attempt to evaluate the moral and metamoral attitudes of a politician from a cognitive and evolutionary viewpoint. Moral attitudes are associated with the human conscience, which developed half a million years ago, has a modularized structure, and is located in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex of the brain. In turn, the metamoral attitudes relate to discovering the moral values of the conscience implemented in objects as their essences. Whereas moral attitudes are revealed at the level of intuitive experiences, metamoral ones require the consciousness of experience, whose neuronal correlate is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The essentialism of the human, which allows him to go beyond the utilitarian assessment of the world towards its axiological evaluation (metamorality), appeared 50 thousand years ago with the unlocking of the specific intelligences of the brain, gaining cognitive fluidity (imagination, thinking by analogy), and beginning to evolutionarily design the world. The moral evaluation of a politician is direct and refers to the six values, revealed in his behavior and attitudes, which combine to form conscience: care, justice, loyalty, authority, holiness, and freedom. It aims to answer the question to what extent a politician represents the interests of my group, that is, puts “we” before “I.” Conversely, the metamoral evaluation of a politician is indirect, based on the handicap principle, and is meant to answer the question how far the politician can transcend the particular interest of his group and take into consideration the interests of other national, cultural, or religious groups. Thus, a politician is expected to, at least partially, alleviate the tension between “us” and “them” created by his own moral attitude. Therefore, there is a state of great tension between the moral and the metamoral evaluation, since morality has evolved for the tribal world, and metamorality is a feature of the global world.

Keywords: evolution of moral sense, moral brain, handicap principle, moral and metamoral evaluation of politicians, tribal morality, global world morality.

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