Inspiracje filozoficzne teorii Viktora E. Frankla

Piotr Teodorczuk


Philosophical Inspirations of V.E. Frankl’s Theory

Viktor Emil Frankl belonged to the generation of Vienna psychotherapists, whose professional activity began in the interwar period, and developed after the war. Frankl early took an interest in the psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud; later on got associated with Alfred Adler, but eventually spotted some negative aspects of those theories and developed his own ideas. He called them twofold: the logotherapy or existential analysis, depending on whether regarded from resp. practical or theoretical point of view. He criticized both scholars for an excessive psychologism, relativism, subjectivism, and the underestimation of the spiritual dimension in man and their free decision. Carl G. Jung had been treated most sympathetically, but not very much attended. Frankl applied achievements of other philosophers, especially the phenomenology of Max Scheler, who was responsible for changing his own way of thinking. However, the mature and independent thought of Frankel is also connected with his life-, therapeutic-, and Nazi-camps-experiences. The confrontation between the theory and practice verified previous and gave new insights into the problems of man and their behavior in difficult, nay, extreme situations. Frankl, however, is not a researcher and analyst of the views of others, but rather a critic who wants to justify his own views. The present article is an attempt to look at the link between the views of Frankl’s and the aforementioned thinkers, as they had the greatest influence on his intellectual development.

Keywords: Viktor E. Frankl, Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl G. Jung, Max Scheler, psychoanalysis, individual psychology, analytical psychology, phenomenology, logotherapy, existential analysis, person, sense.

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